# Aquifer Testing Reference List

by Glenn M. Duffield, President, HydroSOLVE, Inc.

## General References

Batu, V., 1998. Aquifer Hydraulics: A Comprehensive Guide to Hydrogeologic Data Analysis, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 727p.

Bear, J., 1979. Hydraulics of Groundwater, McGraw-Hill, New York, 569p.

Butler, J.J., Jr., 2020. The Design, Performance, and Analysis of Slug Tests (2nd ed.), Lewis Publishers, New York, 266p. [errata: sheet (pdf), spreadsheet (xlsx)]

Domenico, P.A. and F.W. Schwartz, 1990. Physical and Chemical Hydrogeology, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 824 p.

Driscoll, F.G., 1986. Groundwater and Wells (2nd ed.), Johnson Filtration Systems, Inc., St. Paul, Minnesota, 1089p.

Ferris, J.G., D.B. Knowles, R.H. Brown and R.W. Stallman, 1962. Theory of aquifer tests, U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1536 E, 174p. [pdf]

Fetter, C.W., 2001. Applied Hydrogeology (4th ed.), Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 598p.

Freeze, R.A. and J.A. Cherry, 1979. Groundwater, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 604p.

Greenkorn, R.A., 1983. Flow Phenomena in Porous Media, Marcel Dekker, New York, 550p.

Hantush, M.S., 1964. Hydraulics of wells, in: *Advances in Hydroscience*, V.T. Chow (editor), Academic Press, New York, pp. 281-442.

Heath, R.C., 1983. Basic ground-water hydrology, U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2220, 86p. [pdf]

Kresic, N., 1997. Quantitative Solutions in Hydrogeology and Groundwater Modeling, Lewis Publishers, New York, 461p.

Kruseman, G.P. and N.A. de Ridder, 1994. Analysis and Evaluation of Pumping Test Data (2nd ed.), Publication 47, Intern. Inst. for Land Reclamation and Improvement, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 370p. [pdf]

Lohman, S.W., 1972. Ground-water hydraulics, U.S. Geological Survey Prof. Paper 708, 70p. [pdf]

Morris, D.A. and A.I. Johnson, 1967. Summary of hydrologic and physical properties of rock and soil materials as analyzed by the Hydrologic Laboratory of the U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1839-D, 42p. [pdf]

Stallman, R.W., 1971. Aquifer-test design, observation and data analysis, Techniques of Water Resources Investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey, Book 3, Chapter B1, 26p. [pdf]

Streltsova, T.D., 1988. Well Testing in Heterogeneous Formations, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 413p.

USBR, 1995. Ground Water Manual, U.S. Dept. of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Washington, D.C., 661p.

Wolff, R.G., 1982. Physical Properties of Rocks--Porosity, Permeability, Distribution Coefficients, and Dispersivity, U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investgations Open-File Report 82-166, Reston, VA, 118p. [pdf]

## Pumping Tests

### General

Agarwal, R.G., 1980. A new method to account for producing time effects when drawdown type curves are used to analyze pressure buildup and other test data, SPE Paper 9289, presented at the 55^{th} SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, TX, Sept. 21-24, 1980.

Barlow, P.M., and A.F. Moench, 1999. WTAQ - A computer program for calculating drawdowns and estimating hydraulic properties for confined and water-table aquifers, U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4225, 74p. [pdf]

Black, J.H. and K.L. Kipp, 1977. Observation well response time and its effect upon aquifer test results, Journal of Hydrology, vol. 34, pp. 297-306.

Bourdet, D., 2002. *Well Test Analysis: The Use of Advanced Interpretation Models*, Elsevier, New York, 426p.

Kruseman, G.P. and N.A. de Ridder, 1994. *Analysis and Evaluation of Pumping Test Data (2nd ed.)*, Publication 47, Intern. Inst. for Land Reclamation and Improvement, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 370p. [pdf]

Nielsen, K.A., 2007. Fractured Aquifers: Formation Evaluation by Well Testing, Trafford Publishing, Victoria, BC, Canada, 229p.

Streltsova, T.D., 1988. Well Testing in Heterogeneous Formations, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 413p.

USEPA, 1993. Suggested operating procedures for aquifer pumping tests (EPA/540/S-93/503), Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory, Ada, Oklahoma, 23p. [pdf]

Walton, W.C., 1962. Selected analytical methods for well and aquifer evaluation, Illinois State Water Survey Bulletin 49, Urbana, Illinois, 81p. [pdf]

Walton, W.C., 1970. Groundwater Resource Evaluation, McGraw-Hill, New York, 664p.

Woessner, W.W. and M.P. Anderson, 2002. The hydro-malaprop and the ground water table, Ground Water, vol. 40, no. 5, p. 465.

### Confined Aquifers

Butler, J.J., Jr., 1988. Pumping tests in nonuniform aquifers—the radially symmetric case, Journal of Hydrology, vol. 101, pp. 15-30.

Butler, J.J., Jr. and W.Z. Liu, 1991. Pumping tests in nonuniform aquifers—the linear strip case, Journal of Hydrology, vol. 128, pp. 69-99.

Clonts, M.D. and H.J. Ramey, Jr., 1986. Pressure transient analysis for well with horizontal drainholes, SPE Paper 15116, presented at the 56^{th} California Regional Meeting, Oakland, CA, April 2-4, 1986.

Cooper, H.H. and C.E. Jacob, 1946. A generalized graphical method for evaluating formation constants and summarizing well field history, Am. Geophys. Union Trans., vol. 27, pp. 526-534.

Daviau, F., Mouronval, G., Bourdarot, G. and P. Curutchet, 1985. Pressure analysis for horizontal wells, SPE Paper 14251, presented at the 60^{th} Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition in Las Vegas, NV, Sept. 22-25, 1985.

Hantush, M.S., 1961a. Drawdown around a partially penetrating well, Jour. of the Hyd. Div., Proc. of the Am. Soc. of Civil Eng., vol. 87, no. HY4, pp. 83-98.

Hantush, M.S., 1961b. Aquifer tests on partially penetrating wells, Jour. of the Hyd. Div., Proc. of the Am. Soc. of Civil Eng., vol. 87, no. HY5, pp. 171-194.

Hantush, M.S., 1962. Flow of ground water in sands of nonuniform thickness; 3. Flow to wells, Jour. Geophys. Res., vol. 67, no. 4, pp. 1527-1534.

Murdoch, L.C., 1994. Transient analyses of an interceptor trench, Water Resources Research, vol. 30, no. 11, pp. 3023-3031.

Novakowski, K.S., 1989. A composite analytical model for analysis of pumping tests affected by well bore storage and finite thickness skin, Water Resources Research, vol. 25, no. 9, pp. 1937-1946.

Ozkan, E., Raghavan, R. and S.D. Joshi, 1989. Horizontal-well pressure analysis, SPE Formation Evaluation (December 1989), pp. 567-575.

Papadopulos, I.S., 1965. Nonsteady flow to a well in an infinite anisotropic aquifer, Proceedings of the Dubrovnik Symposium on the Hydrology of Fractured Rocks, International Association of Scientific Hydrology, pp. 21-31.

Papadopulos, I.S. and H.H. Cooper, 1967. Drawdown in a well of large diameter, Water Resources Research, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 241-244.

Rasmussen, T.C., Haborak, K.G. and M.H. Young, 2003. Estimating aquifer hydraulic properties using sinusoidal pumping at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, USA, Hydrogeology Journal, vol. 11, pp. 466-482.

Theis, C.V., 1935. The relation between the lowering of the piezometric surface and the rate and duration of discharge of a well using groundwater storage, Am. Geophys. Union Trans., vol. 16, pp. 519-524.

### Unconfined Aquifers

Akindunni, F.F. and R.W. Gillham, 1992. Unsaturated and saturated flow in response to pumping of an unconfined aquifer: numerical investigation of delayed drainage, Ground Water, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 873-884.

Barlow, P.M., and A.F. Moench, 1999. WTAQ - A computer program for calculating drawdowns and estimating hydraulic properties for confined and water-table aquifers, U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4225, 74p. [pdf]

Boulton, N.S., 1951. The flow pattern near a gravity well in a nonuniform water bearing medium, Journal of the Institution of the Civil Engineer, vol. 36, pp. 534-550.

Boulton, N.S., 1954. The drawdown of the water-table under non-steady conditions near a pumped well in an unconfined formation, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Part III, pp. 564-579.

Boulton, N.S., 1955. Unsteady radial flow to a pumped well allowing for delayed yield from storage, International Association of Scientific Hydrology, pub. 37, pp. 472-477.

Boulton, N.S., 1963. Analysis of data from non-equilibrium pumping tests allowing for delayed yield from storage, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, vol. 26, pp. 469-482.

Boulton, N.S., 1970. Analysis of data from pumping tests in unconfined anisotropic aquifers, Journal of Hydrology, vol. 13, no. 10, pp. 369-378.

Dagan, G., 1967. A method of determining the permeability and effective porosity of unconfined anisotropic aquifers, Water Resources Research, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 1059-1071.

Halford, K.J., 1997. Effects of unsaturated zone on aquifer test analysis in a shallow-aquifer system, Ground Water, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 512-522.

Halford, K.J., Weight, W.D. and R.P. Schreiber, 2006. Interpretation of transmissivity estimates from single-well pumping aquifer tests, Ground Water, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 467-471.

Kroszynski, U.I. and G. Dagan, 1975. Well pumping in unconfined aquifers: the influence of the unsaturated zone, Water Resources Research, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 479-490.

Mathias, S.A. and A.P. Butler, 2007. Flow to a finite diameter well in a horizontally anisotropic aquifer with wellbore storage, Water Resources Research, vol. 43, W07501, doi:10.1029/2006WR005839.

Mishra, P.K. and S.P. Neuman, 2010. Improved forward and inverse analyses of saturated-unsaturated flow toward a well in a compressible unconfined aquifer, Water Resources Research, vol. 46, W07508, doi:10.1029/2009WR008899.

Mishra, P.K. and S.P. Neuman, 2011. Saturated-unsaturated flow to a well with storage in a compressible unconfined aquifer, Water Resources Research, vol. 47, W05553, doi:10.1029/2010WR010177.

Moench, A.F., 1993. Computation of type curves for flow to partially penetrating wells in water-table aquifers, Ground Water, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 966-971.

Moench, A.F., 1995. Combining the Neuman and Boulton models for flow to a well in an unconfined aquifer, Ground Water, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 378-384.

Moench, A.F., 1996. Flow to a well in a water-table aquifer: an improved Laplace transform solution, Ground Water, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 593-596.

Moench, A.F., 1997. Flow to a well of finite diameter in a homogeneous, anisotropic water table aquifer, Water Resources Research, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 1397-1407.

Moench, A.F., 1998. Correction to 'Flow to a well of finite diameter in a homogeneous, anisotropic water-table aquifer,' Water Resources Research, vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 2431-2432.

Moench, A.F., 2004. Importance of the vadose zone in analyses of unconfined aquifer tests, Ground Water, vol. 42, no. 2, p. 223-233.

Moench, A.F., Garabedian, S.P. and D.R. LeBlanc, 2001. Estimation of hydraulic parameters from an unconfined aquifer test conducted in a glacial outwash deposit, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1629, 69p. [pdf]

Moench, A.F. and T.A. Prickett, 1972. Radial flow in an infinite aquifer undergoing conversion from artesian to water-table conditions, Water Resources Research, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 494-499.

Narasimhan, T.N. and M. Zhu, 1993. Transient flow of water to a well in an unconfined aquifer: applicability of some conceptual models, Water Resources Research, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 179-191.

Neuman, S.P., 1972. Theory of flow in unconfined aquifers considering delayed gravity response of the water table, Water Resources Research, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 1031-1045.

Neuman, S.P., 1973. Supplementary comments on ‘Theory of flow in unconfined aquifers considering delayed gravity response of the water table’, Water Resources Research, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 1102-1103.

Neuman, S.P., 1974. Effect of partial penetration on flow in unconfined aquifers considering delayed gravity response, Water Resources Research, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 303-312.

Neuman, S.P., 1975. Analysis of pumping test data from anisotropic unconfined aquifers considering delayed gravity response, Water Resources Research, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 329-342.

Neuman, S.P., 1979. Perspective on ‘delayed yield’, Water Resources Research, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 899-908.

Neuman, S.P., 1987. On methods of determining specific yield, Ground Water, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 679-684.

Nwankwor, G.I., Cherry, J.A. and R.W. Gillham, 1984. A comparative study of specific yield determinations for a shallow sand aquifer, Ground Water, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 764-772.

Nwankwor, G.I., Gillham, R.W., van der Kamp, G. and F.F. Akindunni, 1992. Unsaturated and saturated flow in response to pumping of an unconfined aquifer: field evidence of delayed drainage, Ground Water, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 690-700.

Prickett, T.A., 1965. Type-curve solution to aquifer tests under water-table conditions, Ground Water, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 5-14.

Streltsova, T.D., 1972a. Unconfined aquifer and slow drainage, Journal of Hydrology, vol. 16, pp. 117-124.

Streltsova, T.D., 1972b. Unsteady radial flow in an unconfined aquifer, Water Resources Research, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 1059-1066.

Streltsova, T.D., 1973. Flow near a pumped well in an unconfined aquifer under nonsteady conditions, Water Resources Research, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 227-235.

Streltsova, T.D., 1974. Drawdown in compressible unconfined aquifer, Jour. of the Hyd. Div., Proc. of the Am. Soc. of Civil Eng., vol. 100, no. HY11, pp. 1601-1616.

Tartakovsky, G.D. and S.P. Neuman, 2007. Three-dimensional saturated-unsaturated flow with axial symmetry to a partially penetrating well in a compressible unconfined aquifer, Water Resources Research, vol. 43, W01410, doi:1029/2006WR005153.

Zhan, H. and V.A. Zlotnik, 2002. Groundwater flow to a horizontal or slanted well in an unconfined aquifer, Water Resources Research, vol. 38, no. 7, doi:10.1029/2001WR000401.

### Leaky Confined Aquifers

Cooley, R.L. and C.M. Case, 1973. Effect of a water table aquitard on drawdown in an underlying pumped aquifer, Water Resources Research, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 434-447.

Halepaska, J.C., 1972. Drawdown distribution around wells partially penetrating thick leaky artesian aquifers, Water Resources Research, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 1332-1337.

Hantush, M.S., 1960. Modification of the theory of leaky aquifers, Jour. of Geophys. Res., vol. 65, no. 11, pp. 3713-3725.

Hantush, M.S., 1967. Flow of groundwater in relatively thick leaky aquifers, Water Resources Research, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 583-590.

Hantush, M.S. and C.E. Jacob, 1955. Non-steady radial flow in an infinite leaky aquifer, Am. Geophys. Union Trans., vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 95-100.

Hantush, M.S. and C.E. Jacob, 1955. Non-steady Green’s functions for an infinite strip of leaky aquifer, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 101-112.

Hantush, M.S. and C.E. Jacob, 1955. Steady three-dimensional flow to a well in a two-layered aquifer, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 286-292.

Moench, A.F., 1985. Transient flow to a large-diameter well in an aquifer with storative semiconfining layers, Water Resources Research, vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1121-1131.

Neuman, S.P. and P.A. Witherspoon, 1968. Theory of flow in aquicludes adjacent to slightly leaky aquifers, Water Resources Research, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 103-112.

Neuman, S.P. and P.A. Witherspoon, 1969. Theory of flow in a confined two aquifer system, Water Resources Research, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 803-816.

Neuman, S.P. and P.A. Witherspoon, 1969. Applicability of current theories of flow in leaky aquifers, Water Resources Research, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 817-829.

Neuman, S.P. and P.A. Witherspoon, 1972. Field determination of the hydraulic properties of leaky multiple aquifer systems, Water Resources Research, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 1284-1298. [pdf]

Vandenberg, A., 1977. Type curves for analysis of pump tests in leaky strip aquifers, Journal of Hydrology, vol. 33, pp. 15-26.

### Fractured Aquifers

Barenblatt, G.I., Zheltov, I.P. and I.N. Kocina, 1960. Basic concepts in the theory of seepage of homogeneous liquids in fissured rocks (strata), J. Appl. Math. Mech. Engl. Transl., vol. 24, pp. 1286-1303.

Barker, J.A., 1988. A generalized radial flow model for hydraulic tests in fractured rock, Water Resources Research, vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 1796-1804.

Dougherty, D.E and D.K. Babu, 1984. Flow to a partially penetrating well in a double-porosity reservoir, Water Resources Research, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 1116-1122.

Gringarten, A.C. and H.J. Ramey, 1974. Unsteady state pressure distributions created by a well with a single horizontal fracture, partial penetration or restricted entry, SPE Journal, pp. 413-426.

Gringarten, A.C., Ramey, H.J., Jr. and R. Raghavan, 1974. Unsteady-state pressure distributions created by a well with single infinite-conductivity vertical fracture, SPE Journal (August 1974), pp. 347-360.

Gringarten, A.C. and P.A. Witherspoon, 1972. A method of analyzing pump test data from fractured aquifers, Int. Soc. Rock Mechanics and Int. Assoc. Eng. Geol., Proc. Symp. Rock Mechanics, Stuttgart, vol. 3-B, pp. 1-9.

Moench, A.F., 1984. Double-porosity models for a fissured groundwater reservoir with fracture skin, Water Resources Research, vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 831-846. [pdf]

Moench, A.F., 1988. The response of partially penetrating wells to pumpage from double-porosity aquifers, Proceedings of the International Conference on Fluid Flow in Fractured Rocks, Atlanta, GA, May 16-18, 1988.

Warren, J.E. and P.J. Root, 1963. The behavior of naturally fractured reservoirs, SPE Journal, vol. 3, pp. 245-255.

## Step-Drawdown Tests

Birsoy, Y.K. and W.K. Summers, 1980. Determination of aquifer parameters from step tests and intermittent pumping, Ground Water, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 137-146.

Clark, L., 1977. The analysis and planning of step drawdown tests, Q. Jour. Eng. Geol., vol. 10, pp. 125-143.

Jacob, C.E., 1947. Drawdown test to determine effective radius of artesian well, Trans. Amer. Soc. of Civil Engrs., vol. 112, paper 2321, pp. 1047-1064.

Ramey, H.J., 1982. Well-loss function and the skin effect: A review. In: Narasimhan, T.N. (ed.) Recent trends in hydrogeology, Geol. Soc. Am., special paper 189, pp. 265-271.

Rorabaugh, M.J., 1953. Graphical and theoretical analysis of step-drawdown test of artesian well, Proc. Amer. Soc. Civil Engrs., vol. 79, separate no. 362, 23 pp.

## Slug Tests

### General

Brown, D.L. T.N. Narasimhan and Z. Demir, 1995. An evaluation of the Bouwer and Rice method of slug test analysis, Water Resources Research, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 1239-1246.

Butler, J.J., Jr., 1998. The Design, Performance, and Analysis of Slug Tests (1st ed.), Lewis Publishers, New York, 252p. [errata]

Butler, J.J., Jr., 2002. A simple correction for slug tests in small-diameter wells, Ground Water, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 303-307.

Butler, J.J., Jr., 2020. The Design, Performance, and Analysis of Slug Tests (2nd ed.), Lewis Publishers, New York, 266p. [errata: sheet (pdf), spreadsheet (xlsx)]

Butler, J.J., Jr., Duffield, G.M. and D.L. Kelleher, 2011. *Field Guide for Slug Testing and Data Analysis*, Midwest Geosciences Group Press.

Butler, J.J., Jr. and E.J. Garnett, 2000. Simple procedures for analysis of slug tests in formations of high hydraulic conductivity using spreadsheet and scientific graphics software, Kansas Geological Survey Open-File Rept. 2000-40. [online]

Butler, J.J., Jr., Garnett, E.J. and J.M. Healey, 2003. Analysis of slug tests in formations of high hydraulic conductivity, Ground Water, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 620-630.

Liu, W.Z. and J.J. Butler, Jr., 1995. The KGS model for slug test analysis in partially penetrating wells, Kansas Geological Survey Computer Series Report 95-1, Lawrence, Kansas.

McLane, G.A., Harrity, D.A. and K.O. Thomsen, 1990. A pneumatic method for conducting rising and falling head tests in highly permeable aquifers, Proceedings 4^{th} Annual Outdoor Action Conference, National Water Well Association, pp. 1219-1231.

### Confined Aquifers

Butler, J.J., Jr. and X. Zhan, 2004. Hydraulic tests in highly permeable aquifers, Water Resources Research, vol. 40, W12402, doi:10.1029/2003WR002998.

Cooper, H.H., J.D. Bredehoeft and S.S. Papadopulos, 1967. Response of a finite-diameter well to an instantaneous charge of water, Water Resources Research, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 263-269.

Dougherty, D.E and D.K. Babu, 1984. Flow to a partially penetrating well in a double-porosity reservoir, Water Resources Research, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 1116-1122.

Hvorslev, M.J., 1951. Time Lag and Soil Permeability in Ground-Water Observations, Bull. No. 36, Waterways Exper. Sta. Corps of Engrs, U.S. Army, Vicksburg, Mississippi, pp. 1-50.

Hyder, Z., J.J. Butler, Jr., C.D. McElwee and W. Liu, 1994. Slug tests in partially penetrating wells, Water Resources Research, vol. 30, no. 11, pp. 2945-2957.

McElwee, C.D., 2000. Implementation of a nonlinear model for analysis of slug tests, Kansas Geological Survey Computer Program Series 2000-01, Lawrence, Kansas.

McElwee, C.D., Butler, J.J., Jr. and G.C. Bohling, 1992. Nonlinear analysis of slug tests in highly permeable aquifers using a Hvorslev-type approach, Kansas Geol. Survey Open-File Report 92-39.

McElwee, C.D. and M. Zenner, 1998. A nonlinear model for analysis of slug-test data, Water Resources Research, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 55-66.

Peres, A.M., Onur, M. and A.C. Reynolds, 1989. A new analysis procedure for determining aquifer properties from slug test data, Water Resources Research, vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 1591-1602.

Ross, B., 1985. Theory of the oscillating slug test in deep wells in Memoirs 17^{th} Int. Congr. Hydrogeol. Rocks Low Permeability, vol. 17, no. 2, Int. Assoc. Hydrogeologists, pp. 44-51.

### Unconfined Aquifers

Bouwer, H., 1989. The Bouwer and Rice slug test--an update, Ground Water, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 304-309.

Bouwer, H. and R.C. Rice, 1976. A slug test method for determining hydraulic conductivity of unconfined aquifers with completely or partially penetrating wells, Water Resources Research, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 423-428.

Butler, J.J., Jr., 2014. Slug tests in wells screened across the water table: some additional considerations, Ground Water, vol. 52, no. 2. pp. 311-316.

Dagan, G., 1978. A note on packer, slug, and recovery tests in unconfined aquifers, Water Resources Research, vol. 14, no. 5. pp. 929-934.

Hyder, Z., J.J. Butler, Jr., C.D. McElwee and W. Liu, 1994. Slug tests in partially penetrating wells, Water Resources Research, vol. 30, no. 11, pp. 2945-2957.

Springer, R.K. and L.W. Gelhar, 1991. Characterization of large-scale aquifer heterogeneity in glacial outwash by analysis of slug tests with oscillatory response, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, U.S. Geol. Surv. Water Res. Invest. Rep. 91-4034, pp. 36-40. [pdf]

Zlotnik, V., 1994. Interpretation of slug and packer tests in anisotropic aquifers, Ground Water, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 761-766.

Zlotnik, V.A. and V.L. McGuire, 1998. Multi-level slug tests in highly permeable formations: 1. Modifications of the Springer-Gelhar (SG) model, Journal of Hydrology, no. 204, pp. 271-282.

## Hydrocarbon Baildown Tests

Huntley, D., 2000. Analytic determination of hydrocarbon transmissivity from baildown tests, Ground Water, vol. 38, no. 1, pp.46-52.

## Constant-Head Tests

Chang, C.-C. and C.-S. Chen, 2002. An integral transform approach for a mixed boundary problem involving a flowing partially penetrating well with infinitesimal well skin, Water Resources Research, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 7-1 - 7-7.

Chen, C.-S. and C.-C. Chang, 2002. Use of cumulative volume of constant-head injection test to estimate aquifer parameters with skin effects: field experiment and data analysis, Water Resources Research, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 14-1 - 14-6.

Clegg, M.W., 1967. Some approximate solutions of radial flow problems associated with production at constant well pressure, SPE Journal, March 1967, pp. 31-42.

Culham, W.E., 1974. Pressure buildup equations for spherical flow regime problems, SPE Journal, December 1974, pp. 545-555.

Da Prat, G.C., H. Cinco-Ley and H.J. Ramey, Jr., 1980. Decline curve analysis using type-curves for two-porosity systems, SPE Paper 9292, presented at the 55^{th} SPE Annual Fall Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, TX, Sept. 21-24, 1980.

Doe, T.W., 1991. Fractional dimension analysis of constant-pressure well tests, SPE Paper 22702, presented at the 66^{th} Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, TX, Oct. 8-9, 1991.

Ehlig-Economides, C.A. and H.J. Ramey, Jr., 1981. Transient rate decline analysis for wells produced at constant pressure, SPE Journal, February 1981, pp. 98-104.

Ehlig-Economides, C.A. and H.J. Ramey, Jr., 1981. Pressure buildup for wells produced at a constant pressure, SPE Journal, February 1981, pp. 105-114.

Guppy, K.H., H. Cinco-Ley and H.J. Ramey, Jr., 1981. Pressure buildup analysis of fractured wells producing at high flow rates, SPE Paper 10178 presented at 56^{th} SPE Annual Fall Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, TX, Oct. 5-7, 1981.

Hantush, M.S., 1959. Nonsteady flow to flow wells in leaky aquifers, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 64, no. 8, pp. 1043-1052.

Hurst, W., J.D. Clark and E.B. Brauer, 1969. The skin effect in producing wells, Journal of Petroleum Technology, November 1969, pp. 1483-1489.

Jacob, C.E. and S.W. Lohman, 1952. Nonsteady flow to a well of constant drawdown in an extensive aquifer, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, vol. 33, pp. 559-569.

Lohman, S.W., 1965. Geology and artesian water supply of the Grand Junction area, Colorado, U.S. Geological Survey Prof. Paper 451, 149 p. [pdf]

Mishra, S. and D. Guyonnet, 1992. Analysis of observation-well response during constant-head testing, Ground Water, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 523-528.

Ozkan, E. and R. Raghavan, 1991. New solutions for well-test analysis problems: Part I - analytical considerations, SPE Formation Evaluation, Sept. 1991, pp. 359-368.

Uraiet, A.A. and R. Raghavan, 1980. Unsteady flow to a well producing at a constant pressure, Journal of Petroleum Technology, Oct. 1980, pp. 1803-1812.

Uraiet, A.A. and R. Raghavan, 1980. Pressure buildup analysis for a well produced at constant bottomhole pressure, Journal of Petroleum Technology, Oct. 1980, pp. 1813-1824.

## Derivative Analysis

Bourdet, D., 2002. *Well Test Analysis: The Use of Advanced Interpretation Models*, Elsevier, New York, 426p.

Bourdet, D., Ayoub, J.A. and Y.M. Pirard, 1989. Use of pressure derivative in well-test interpretation, SPE Formation Evaluation, June 1989, pp. 293-302.

Bourdet, D., Whittle, T.M., Douglas, A.A. and Y.M. Pirard, 1983. A new set of type curves simplifies well test analysis, World Oil, May 1983, pp. 95-106.

Renard, P., 2005. Hydraulics of wells and well testing, in: Encyclopedia of Hydrological Sciences, M.G. Anderson (editor), John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 2323–2340.

Renard, P., Glenz, D. and M. Mejias, 2009. Understanding diagnostic plots for well-test interpretation, Hydrogeology Journal, vol. 17, pp. 589-600, doi:10.1007/s10040-008-0392-0.

Spane, F.A., Jr., and S.K. Wurstner, 1993. DERIV: A computer program for calculating pressure derivatives for use in hydraulic test analysis, Ground Water, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 814-822.

## Diagnostic Plots

Horne, R. N., 1995. Modern Well Test Analysis: A Computer-Aided Approach, 2nd. ed., Petroway, Palo Alto, 257p.

Streltsova, T.D., 1988. Well Testing in Heterogeneous Formations, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 413p.

## Tidal Effects

Ferris, J.G., 1951. Cyclic fluctuations of water level as a basis for determining aquifer transmissivity, Intl. Assoc. Sci. Hydrology Publ. 33, pp. 148-155.

Ferris, J.G., D.B. Knowles, R.H. Brown and R.W. Stallman, 1962. Theory of aquifer tests, U.S. Geol. Surv. Water-Supply Paper 1536 E, 174p. [pdf]

Jiao, J.J. and Z. Tang, 1999. An analytical solution of groundwater response to tidal fluctuation in a leaky confined aquifer, Water Resources Research, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 747-751.

Jiao, J.J. and Z. Tang, 2001. Reply to comment by R. E. Volker and Q. Zhang on "An analytical solution of groundwater response to tidal fluctuation in a leaky confined aquifer" by J. J. Jiao and Z. Tang, Water Resources Research, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 187-188.

Milldam, N.P. and B.L. Howes, 1995. A comparison of methods to determine K in a shallow coastal aquifer, Ground Water, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 49-57.

Todd, D.K., 1980. Groundwater Hydrology, 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York, 535p.

Trefry, M.G. and C.D. Johnston, 1998. Pumping test analysis for a tidally forced aquifer, Ground Water, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 427-433.

Volker, R.E. and Q. Zhang, 2001. Comment on "An analytical solution of groundwater response to tidal fluctuation in a leaky confined aquifer" by J.J. Jiao and Z. Tang, Water Resources Research, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 185-186.

## Groundwater Mounding

Hantush, M.S., 1967. Growth and decay of groundwater-mounds in response to uniform percolation, Water Resources Research, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 227-234.

## Reverse Water-Level Fluctuation

**Reverse water-level fluctuation** refers to a pumping-induced change in hydraulic head that is opposite in direction from what is expected to occur under normal conditions. Known generally as the Mandel-Cryer effect (Mandel 1953; Cryer 1963), reverse water-level fluctuations are attributed to three-dimensional deformation of an aquifer-aquitard system due to pumping stress (Hsieh 1996). When a brief increase in head is observed after the start of pumping, it is sometimes called the Noordbergum effect after a village in the Netherlands where the phenomenon was first described (Verruijt 1969); on the other hand, Rhade effect is the name given to a decrease in head that occurs after pumping stops.

Berg, S.J., Hsieh, P.A. and W.A. Illman, 2011. Estimating hydraulic parameters when poroelastic effects are significant, Ground Water, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 815-829.

Burbey, T.J., 1999. Effects of horizontal strain in estimating specific storage and compaction in confined and leaky aquifer systems, Hydrogeology Journal, vol. 7, pp. 521-532.

Burbey, T.J., 2013. Poroelastic effects on fracture characterization, Ground Water, vol 51, no. 6, pp. 904-913.

Cryer, C.W., 1963. A comparison of the three-dimensional consolidation theories of Biot and Terzaghi, Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics, vol. 16, pp. 401-412.

Gellasch, C.A., Wang, H.F., Bradbury, K.R., Bahr, J.M. and L.L. Lande, 2014. Reverse water-level fluctuations asssociated with fracture connectivity, Ground Water, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 105-117.

Hsieh, P.A., 1996. Deformation-induced changes in hydraulic head during ground-water withdrawal, Ground Water, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 1082-1089.

Kim, J.-M. and R.R. Parizek, 1997. Numerical simulation of the Noordbergum effect resulting from groundwater pumping in a layered aquifer system, Journal of Hydrology, 202, pp. 231-243.

Kim, J.-M. and R.R. Parizek, 2005. Numerical simulation of the Rhade effect in layered aquifer systems due to groundwater pumping shutoff, Advances in Water Resources, vol. 28, no. 6, pp.627-642.

Mandel, J., 1953. Consolidation del sols, Geotechnique, vol. 3, pp. 287-299.

Rodrigues, J.D., 1983. The Noordbergum effect and the characterization of aquitards at the Rio Maion mining project, Ground Water, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 200-207.

Verruijt, A., 1969. Elastic storage of aquifers. In: R.J.M. DeWiest (ed), Flow Through Porous Media, Academic Press, New York, pp. 331-376.

## Subsidence

Domenico, P.A. and M.D. Mifflin, 1965. Water from low-permeability sediments and land subsidence, Water Resources Research, vol. 1, no. 4., pp. 563-576.

## Stream Depletion

Butler, J.J., Jr., Zhan, X. and V.A. Zlotnik, 2007. Pumping-induced drawdown and stream depletion in a leaky aquifer system, Ground Water, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 178-186.

Butler, J.J., Jr., Zlotnik, V.A. and M.S. Tsou, 2001. Drawdown and stream depletion produced by pumping in the vicinity of a partially penetrating stream, Ground Water, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 651-659.

Glover, R.E. and C.G. Balmer, 1954. River depletion from pumping a well near a river, American Geophysical Union Transactions, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 468-470.

Hantush, M.S., 1965. Wells near streams with semipervious beds, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 70, no. 12, pp. 2829-2838.

Hunt, B., 1999. Unsteady stream depletion from ground water pumping, Ground Water, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 98-102.

Hunt, B., 2003. Unsteady stream depletion when pumping from semiconfined aquifer, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 12-19.

Hunt, B., 2008. Stream depletion for streams and aquifers with finite widths, Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 80-89.

Hunt, B., 2009. Stream depletion in a two-layer leaky aquifer system, Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 895-903.

Hunt, B., Weir, J. and B. Clausen, 2001. A stream depletion field experiment, Ground Water, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 283-289.

Jenkins, C.T., 1968. Techniques for computing rate and volume of stream depletion by wells, Ground Water, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 37-46.

Lough, H.K. and B. Hunt, 2006. Pumping test evaluation of stream-depletion parameters, Ground Water, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 540-546.

Theis, C.V., 1941. The effect of a well on the flow in a nearby stream, American Geophysical Transactions, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 734-738.

Zlotnik, V.A., 2004. A concept of maximum stream depletion for leaky aquifer in alluvial stream valleys, Water Resources Research, vol. 40, W06507.doi:10.1029/2003WR002932.

## K From Grain Size

Beyer, W., 1964. Zur Bestimmung der Wasserdurchlassigkeit von Kieson und Sanduen aus der Kornverteilung [On the determination of hydraulic conductivity of gravels and sands from grain-size distribution], Wasserwirtschaft Wassertechnik, vol. 14, pp. 165–169.

Carrier, W.D., III, 2003. Goodbye, Hazen; hello, Kozeny-Carman, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, vol. 129, no. 11, pp. 1054–1056.

Hazen, A., 1892. Physical properties of sands and gravels with reference to their use infiltration, Massachusetts State Board of Health, Boston, MA.

Hazen, A., 1911. Discussion of dams on sand foundations by A. C. Koenig. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers, vol. 73, pp. 199–203.

Rosas, J., O. Lopez, T.M. Missimer, K.M. Coulibaly, A.H.A. Dehwah, K. Sesler, L.R. Lujan and D. Mantilla, 2014. Determination of hydraulic conductivity from grain-size distribution for different depositional environments, Ground Water, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 399-413.

Wang, J.-P., B. Francois, and P. Lambert, 2017. Equations for hydraulic conductivity estimation from particle size distribution: a dimensional analysis, Water Resources Research, vol. 53, doi:10.1002/2017WR020888.