# Bouwer and Rice Slug Test Solution for Unconfined Aquifers

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A mathematical solution by Bouwer and Rice (1976) is useful for determining the hydraulic conductivity (K) of **unconfined** and **confined** aquifers. Analysis involves matching a straight-line solution to water-level displacement data collected during an overdamped slug test. Bouwer (1989) points out the applicability of this solution for overdamped slug tests in confined as well as unconfined aquifers. Zlotnik (1994) added hydraulic conductivity anisotropy (Kz/Kr) to the method.

AQTESOLV provides visual and automatic methods for matching the Bouwer and Rice solution to slug test data. This easy-to-use and intuitive software promotes rapid and accurate determination of aquifer properties. The software also includes recommended head ranges (Butler 1998) that reduce ambiguity when matching the Bouwer and Rice solution to slug test data having a concave upward appearance.

## Assumptions

The following assumptions apply to the use of the Bouwer and Rice slug test method:

- aquifer has infinite areal extent
- aquifer is homogeneous and of uniform thickness
- aquifer potentiometric surface is initially horizontal
- control well is fully or partially penetrating
- a volume of water, V, is injected or discharged instantaneously from the control well
- aquifer is confined or unconfined
- flow is steady

## Solution

Options

AQTESOLV provides the following options for the Bouwer and Rice method for overdamped slug tests:

- partially penetrating wells
- correction for gravel pack porosity
- hydraulic conductivity anisotropy

## Benchmarks

## References

Bouwer, H., 1989. The Bouwer and Rice slug test--an update, Ground Water, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 304-309.

Bouwer, H. and R.C. Rice, 1976. A slug test method for determining hydraulic conductivity of unconfined aquifers with completely or partially penetrating wells, Water Resources Research, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 423-428.

Zlotnik, V., 1994. Interpretation of slug and packer tests in anisotropic aquifers, Ground Water, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 761-766.